THE ROYALTY OF SCOTLAND

The Scottish Nation is generally acknowledged to have come together between the sixth and fourteenth centuries, absorbing several races in the process of creating what certain individuals like to think of as the pure Scot. In fact, there is no such being. The early Scots were a post-Roman Gaelic-speaking people who invaded and settled the west coast, known then as Dalriada, having travelled over the sea from Ireland, and before that, it is fancifully suggested, although not as yet proven, the Middle East.

The original pre-Roman inhabitants were collectively known as Picts, because their language was pictorial and, through colonisation and marriage, and because they had no written language with which to record what was happening to them, they simply disappeared.

Meanwhile, Scandinavian Viking people invaded the far north, west coast and offshore islands and stayed on. In the south, Strathclyde Britons, a Welsh speaking people, and early Saxon settlers, put down encampments. With the first overseas trade initiatives appeared merchants, and following William the Conqueror’s invasion of England in 1066, Norman-born fortune hunters arrived in Scotland. Finally we have the influence of the English in more modern times.

The Royal House of Scotland arose from the union in 843 of the Kingdom of the Scots, Dalriada, with Caledonia, the Kingdom of the Picts, which later comprised the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Kings of the Picts, ARD RIGH ALBANN, according to their chroniclers, derived from CRUITHNE, King of the Picts (from whose seven younger sons the original Seven Earls or provincial Kings of Caledonia were deduced) through seventy kings (of whom the 49th, BRUDE MacMAELCON, 565, and NECTAN MacDERILI, 596-617, were converted to Christianity), to ...

CONSTANTINE MacANGUS, (71st), who was succeeded by,

ANGUS II, (72nd) who reigned 821-833, and had issue,

His son and heir,

EOGHAIN MacANGUS (73rd), who died 839, when he was succeeded by his great-nephew,

KENNETH I, surnamed MacAlpin, (74th), in whose person the Crowns of Dalriada and Caledonia were united as first King of Scots from 844, and had issue,

(in both realms tribal Kingship was hereditary in the Royal race but selective as regards the individual, passing primarily to the Tanistair or nominee of the reigning Sovereign), and at his death in 859, he was succeeded by his brother,

DONALD I, who reigned from 859 to 863, when he was succeeded by his nephew,

CONSTANTINE I, (son of Kenneth I), reigned from 863 to 877, when he fell in a battle with the Danes, and was succeeded by his brother, he left issue,

His brother,

AEDH, who reigned but one year, 877-8, when it is said that he was "slain by his people," and was succeeded by his nephew, he left issue,

His nephew,

EOCHA, (son of Run, King of Strathclyde, by the dau. of Kenneth I), he reigned 878-889, (Ciric or Grig, son of Dungail, being associated with him) and was succeeded by his first cousin,

DONALD II, (son of Constantine I), reigned from 889-900, when he was slain in a Danish invasion, and was succeeded by his first cousin, he left issue,

His first cousin,

CONSTANTINE II, (son of Aedh), who reigned 42 years, 900-942, and, being harassed by the ravages of the Northmen, ret. 942 to the Monastery of St. Andrews, and was succeeded by his first cousin once removed, he left issue,

His first cousin once removed,

MALCOLM I, (son of Donald II), reigned from 942-954 when he was succeeded by his second cousin, he left issue,

His second cousin,

INDULPH, (son of Constantine II), reigned from 954-962, when he was succeeded by his second cousin once removed, he left issue,

His second cousin once removed,

DUBH, (son of Malcolm II), reigned from 962-967, when he was succeeded by his third cousin, he left issue,

His third cousin,

CUILEAN, (son of Indulph), reigned from 967-911, when he was succeeded by his third cousin, he left issue,

His third cousin,

KENNETH II, (son of Malcolm I), reigned from 971-995, when he was succeeded by his third cousin once removed, he left issue,

His third cousin once removed,

CONSTANTINE III, (son of Cuilean), reigned from 995-997, when he was succeeded by his fourth cousin,

KENNETH III, son of DUBH, reigned from 997-1005, and was slain at Monzievaird circa 25 March, 1005, by his first cousin, he left issue,

His first cousin,

MALCOLM II (styled Malcolm MacKenneth), born circa 954, (son of Kenneth II), reigned from 1005-34, acceded to Alba 1005, secured Lothian circa 1016, obtained Strathclyde for his grandson Duncan circa 1016, he died 25 November 1034, at 80, having had issue,

His grandson and successor,

THE HOUSE OF ATHOLL

DUNCAN I, (son of Crinan, Hereditary Abbot of Dunkeld, and Bethoc his wife, daughter of Malcolm II), reigned 1034-40, during which the north and west of Scotland were conquered by the Northmen, under Thorfinn, Jarl of the Orkneys, he married a cousin of Siward, Earl of Northumberland, and had three sons,

He was killed 14 August 1040, by his cousin, Macbeth, Mormaer of Moray, who had joined forces with those of the invader, and who succeeded him.

His first cousin,

MACBETH, (son of Filaec, Mormaer of Moray, and Donada, daughter of Malcolm II), reigned from 1040-57, (his kingdom being confined to the country south and west of the Tay, Thorfinn ruling over the remainder), he married Gruoch, widow of Gillacomgan and daughter of Bode, son of Kenneth III, and was killed without issue 15 August 1057, by Malcolm, son of Duncan I at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, he was succeeded by his stepson,

LULACH, (son of GILLACOMGAN, Mormaer of Moray, and Gruoch his wife, daughter of BODE, son of KENNETH III), was made King by MACBETH'S party, and after reigning seven months, was slain at Essie, in Strathbogie, 17 March, 1057-58, leaving issue,

His successor,

MALCOLM III, known as Ceannmor, or Great Head, born circa 1031, (eldest son of DUNCAN I), ascended the throne, 17 March, 1057-58. Under him, the provinces acquired by Thorfinn, fell again under native rule. He married firstly, circa 1059, Ingibjorg, daughter or widow of Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney, and had issue,

He married secondly, 1068-69, Margaret (died 16 November 1093, and was canonised as St. Margaret), daughter of Edward Atheling and sister of EDGAR ATHELING, who had fled to Scotland with his sisters, and by her had issue,

Malcolm was slain at Alnwick, 13 November 1093 (buried at Tynemouth) and was succeeded by his brother,

DONALD BANE became King of Scots, 13 November 1093, but was deposed May, 1094, by his nephew,

DUNCAN II, born 1060, son of MALCOLM III, by his first wife. He married circa 1090, Ethelreda, daughter of Cospatrick, Earl of Northumberland, and had issue, a son, DUNCAN, father of WILLIAM, whose son, William of Egremont, died under age. DUNCAN II, after reigning six months, was slain at Mondynes, 12 November 1094, when,

DONALD BANE resumed the throne, 12 November 1094, his nephew, EDMUND, son of MALCOLM III (and Margaret, his wife), being conjoined with him. In 1097, through means of EDGAR ATIIELING, DONALD was defeated and expelled from Scotland, EDMUND imprisoned, and the throne assumed by EDGAR (another son of MALCOLM III). DONALD BANE'S grand-daughter and heiress, HEXTILDA, married Richard Comyn, and their descendant, John Comyn, known as the Black Comyn, was one of the competitors for the Scottish Crown in 1291. Donald Bane was succeeded by

EDGAR, born 1074, son of MALCOLM III, reigned from 1097-1107, died unmarried 8 January 1106-7, and was succeeded by his brother,

ALEXANDER I, born 1077. While Alexander reigned over Scotland, north of the Forth and Clyde, his brother DAVID, who had been trained in England, and was Earl of Northumberland, ruled with the title of Earl in Lothian and Cumbria. Alexander married Sybilla (died without issue 12 July, 1122), natural daughter of HENRY I of England. He died at Stirling, 23 April, 1124, and was succeeded by his yst. brother,

DAVID I (called The Saint), born circa 1080, married circa 1114, Matilda, widow of Simon de Senlis or St. Liz, and daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, and had issue,

David I, died 24 May, 1153, and was succeeded by his grandson.

MALCOLM IV (called The Maiden), born 20 March, 1141-2, died unmarried 9 December 1165 (buried at Dunfermline), and was succeeded by his brother,

WILLIAM (known as The Lion), born circa 1143, enthroned at Scone, 24 December 1165, married 5 September 1186, Ermengarde (died 11 February 1233-4), daughter of Richard, Viscount of Bellomont, and had issue,

William had also five illegitimate children, a son and four daughters, from each of whom sprang one of the claimants to the Crown in 1291-92. WILLIAM (The Lion), died at Stirling 4 December 1214, was buried at Aberbrothock, and was succeeded by his son,

ALEXANDER II, born 24 August 1198, enthroned 6 December 1214. He married firstly, 19 June, 1221, Joan, (died without issue 4 March, 1237-8), daughter of King JOHN of England. He married secondly, 15 May, 1239, Mary (who married secondly, before 6 June, 1257, Jean de Brienne, son of John, King of Jerusalem), daughter of Ingelram (or Enguerand) de Couci, Baron de Couci in Picardy, and by her had issue, a son,

Alexander II had also a natural daughter, Marjory, married Alan Durward, the Justiciary, whose grandson, Nicolas de Soulis, was one of the competitors for the Crown. He died at the Island of Kerrera 8 July, 1249, and was buried in Melrose Abbey and was succeeded by his only son,

ALEXANDER III, born 4 September 1241, enthroned at Scone, 13 July, 1249, married firstly, 26 December 1251, Margaret (died 26 February 1274-5), elder daughter, of Henry III of England, and had issue,

Alexander III, married secondly, 14 October 1285, Yolande, daughter of Robert IV, Count de Dreux, and died without issues. from a fall from horseback, nr. Kinghorn, 19 March, 1285-6. He was succeeded by his grand-daughter,

MARGARET, the Maid of Norway, born before 9 April, 1283, died unmarried 28 September 1290, on her passage to Scotland, and a disputed succession followed, the competitors, twelve in number, eventually agreeing to submit their claims to the arbitration of EDWARD I of England. JOHN BALIOL and ROBERT BRUCE were the two between whom the contest eventually lay, and on 17 November 1292 EDWARD decided in favour of,

JOHN BALIOL, born circa 1250, (eldest surv. son of John de Baliol (by his wife Devorguilla, third daughter, but eventual heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway, and his wife Margaret, daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, he was crowned at Scone 30 November 1292 and his acknowledgment of Edward as Lord Paramount was followed by a succession of indignities, which goaded him into resistance, and he was compelled to resign the Crown, 10 July, 1296. He married before 7 February 1280-1, Isobel, daughter of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and died in France, circa April, 1313, having had issue, two sons,

Baliol’s deposition was followed by Edward’s subjugation of Scotland, and two struggles for independence, the first under Sir William Wallace, the second, with success, under ROBERT THE BRUCE, who at length succeeded as,

ROBERT (I) THE BRUCE, born 11 July, 1274, (eldest son of Robert Bruce, Lord of Annandale (see above), and grandson of ALEXANDER III's nominee (tanistair)), was crowned at Scone, 27 March, 1306, and re-established the independence of Scotland at Bannockburn, 24 June, 1314. He married firstly, circa 1295, Isabel, daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar, and had issue, a daughter,

Robert I married secondly, 1302, Elizabeth de Burgh (died 26 October 1327), daughter of Richard, Earl of Ulster, and by her had issue,

Robert I died 7 June, 1329, was buried at Dunfermline, and was succeeded by his elder son,

DAVID II, Earl of Carrick before his accession, born 5 March, 1323-4, crowned at Scone, 24 November 1331. He married firstly, 17 July, 1328, Johanna (died 14 August 1362), daughter of EDWARD II of England, he married secondly, 20 February 1363-4 (div. 20 March 1369-70), Margaret (died post 31 January 1374-5), widow of Sir John Logie, and daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond. He died without issue at Edinburgh Castle, 22 February 1370-1, and was succeeded by his nephew,

THE HOUSE OF STEWART

ROBERT II, (only child of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of ROBERT I), born 2 March, 1315-16, Steward of Scotland, 9 April, 1326, Regent 1335-41, and 1346-57, created Earl of Atholl, 16 February 1341-2, Earl of Strathearn before 1357-8, and crowned at Scone, 26 March, 1371. He married firstly (dispensation dd 22 November 1347), Elizabeth (died ante 1355), daughter of Sir Adam Mure, of Rowallan. By her he had previously had issue,

Robert II, married secondly (Papal Dispensation 2 May, 1355), Euphemia (died 1387), widow of John Randolph, Earl of Moray, and daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and by her had issue,

Robert II also had several illegitimate sons,

Robert II died at his Castle of Dundonald, 19 Apri1, 1390, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John Stewart, Earl of Carrick, as,

ROBERT III, born 1337, Crowned at Scone 14 August 1390, married in or shortly before 1367, Annabella (died 1401), daughter of John Drummond, of Stobhall, and had issue,

Robert III, also had two illegitimate sons,

Robert III died at Dundonald, Ayrshire, 4 April, 1406, and was succeeded by his third son,

JAMES I, born December 1394, captured by the English at sea, 4 April, 1406, was a prisoner in England until 1424, and was crowned at Scone 21 May, 1424. He married 2 February 1423-4, Lady Joan Beaufort (who married secondly, 1439, Sir James Stewart, the "Black Knight of Lorn" and died 15 July, 1445), daughter of first Earl of Somerset (son of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swinford), and had issue,

James I was assassinated at Perth by his uncle, Walter, Earl of Atholl, Sir Robert Graham, and other conspirators, 21 February 1436-7, was buried in the Carthusian Church at Perth, and was succeeded by his younger son,

JAMES II, born 16 October 1430, Crowned 25 March, 1437, married 3 July, 1449, Mary (died 1 December 1463, buried in Trin. Coll. Church, Edinburgh), daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres, and had issue,

James II also left an illegitimate son,

James II was killed by the bursting of a piece of ordnance at Roxburgh Castle, 3 August 1460 (buried at Holyrood), and was succeeded by his eldest son,

JAMES III, born 10 July, 1451, Crowned at Kelso, 10 August 1460, married 13 July, 1469, Margaret (died 14 July 1486, buried at Cambuskenneth), daughter of CHRISTIAN I, King of Denmark, and had issue,

James III was killed at Sauchieburn, 11 June, 1488 (buried at Cambuskenneth), and was succeeded by his eldest son,

JAMES IV, born 17 March, 1472-3, Crowned 26 June, 1488, married 8 August 1503, Margaret (who married secondly, 6 August 1514, 6th Earl of Angus, whom she divorced and thirdly, March, 1526, Henry Stewart, Lord Methven, son of Lord Avandale and died 18 October 1541), eldest daughter of KING HENRY VII of England, and had issue, with two daughters, (died in infancy),

James IV had several illegitimate children,

James IV fell at Flodden, 9 September 1513 (buried at Richmond, Surrey), and was succeeded by his third son,

JAMES V, born 10 April, 1512, crowned at Stirling 21 September 1513, married firstly, 1 January 1536-7, Madeline de Valois (died without issue 7 July, 1537, buried at Holyrood), daughter of FRANCIS I, of France. He married secondly, June, 1538, Marie de Lorraine, Regent of Scotland during her daughter's minority (died in Edinburgh Castle, 10 June, 1560, buried at Rheims), widow of Louis d'Orleans, Duke of Longueville, and daughter of Claude de Guise Lorraine, Duke d'Aumale, and had issue,

James V also had numerous illegitimate children,

James V died at Falkland, 14 December 1542 (buried at Holyrood House), and was succeeded by his only daughter,

MARY, born at Linlithgow, 7 or 8 December 1542, crowned at Stirling Castle 9 September 1543, married firstly, 24 April, 1558, Francis, The Dauphin of France, afterwards FRANCIS II (who died without issue 5 December 1560). She married secondly, 29 July, 1565, her cousin Henry, Lord Darnley (son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox), created 15 May, 1565, previously to his marriage, Duke of Albany, Earl of Ross, and Lord Ardmanach, (murdered at the Kirk of Field, 10 February 1566-7) and had issue. She married thirdly, 15 May, 1567, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was created Duke of Orkney 12 May, 1567, and died without issue 14 April, 1578. A prisoner at Loch Leven after the defeat at Carberry Hill, the Queen was compelled to abdicate 24 July, 1567, escaping from Loch Leven and defeated at Langside, 13 May, 1568, she fled to England, and after 19 years' captivity, was beheaded in Fotheringay Castle, Northants, 8 February 1586-7. By her second husband she had an only son,

THE HOUSE OF STUART

JAMES VI (of Scotland) and I (of England) (the first of the HOUSE OF STUART), King Scotland & England, born at Edinburgh Castle, 19 June, 1566, Duke of Rothesay and Heir-apparent to Scotland at birth, succeeded his mother, Mary I, as James VI, King of Scotland, 24 July, 1567, Crowned 29 July following, succeeded his grandmother's first cousin, Elizabeth I, as King of England and Ireland, 24 March, 1603, as JAMES I, and was so crowned 25 July, 1603, married at Upsala, 21 November 1589, Anne (born at Scanderborg, 14 October 1574, died at Hampton Court, 2 March, 1618-19, buried at Westminster Abbey), daughter of Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway, and had issue,

James I died at Theobalds, Herts, 27 March, 1625 (buried at Westminster Abbey), and was succeeded by his son,

CHARLES I, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, born at Dunfermline, 19 November 1600, Duke of Albany, Marquis of Ormond, and Duke of York, 1604, Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester, 1616, succeeded his father, James I and VI, as King, 27 March, 1625, crowned 2 February 1626, married at Canterbury Cathedral, 11 May, 1625, Henrietta Maria (born at Le Louvre, Paris, 25 November 1609, died at Chateau de Colombe, 10 September 1669, buried at St. Denis), daughter of Henry IV, King of France and had issue,

Charles I was beheaded at Whitehall, 30 January 1649 (buried at Windsor), and was succeeded by his son,

CHARLES II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, born at St. James's, 29 May, 1630, Prince of Wales, 1638, succeeded his father, Charles I, as King 30 January 1649, obtained possession of the Crown, 29 May, 1660, crowned 23 April.1661, married at Portsmouth, 21 May 1662, Catherine, Infanta of Portugal (born at Lisbon, 25 November 1638, died without issue at Lisbon, 30 November 1705, buried at Belem), daughter of JOHN IV, King of Portugal. He died without issuel at Whitehall 6 February 1685 (bur. at Westminster Abbey) but left numerous illegitimate issue,

(By Lucy Walter or Barlow (1630-58))

(By Elizabeth Killigrew, Lady Shannon)

(By Catherine Pegge)

(By Barbara Villiers or Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine and Duchess of Cleveland (1641-1709)

(By Nell Gwyn (1650-87)

(By Louise-Renee de Penancoet de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth (1649-1734))

(By Moll or Mary Davis)

He was succeeded by his brother,

JAMES II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, born at St. James's, 14 October 1633, Duke of York, 1642, Earl of Ulster, 1659, succeeded his brother, Charles II, as James II, King of England and Ireland, and VII of Scotland, 6 February 1685, crowned 23 April, 1685, married firstly, at Breda, 24 November 1659, and Worcester House, 3 September 1660, Anne (born at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor, 12 March, 1637, died St. James's Palace, 31 March, 1671, bur. at West­minster Abbey), eldest daughter of Edward Hyde, first Earl of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor of England, and had issue,

He married secondly (proxy), at Modena, 30 September 1673, in person at Dover, 21 November 1673, Mary Beatrix Anne Margaret Isabella D'Este (born at Modena, 25 September 1658, died at St. Germain, 8 May, 1718, buried at Chaillot), daughter of Alphonso IV, Duke of Modena, and by her had issue,

James II, also had several illegitimate children,

James II (who died at St. Germain, 16 September 1701, buried there) was declared by Act of Parliament, 2 February 1689, to have abdicated the Government on 11 December 1688, and, on 13 February 1689, his nephew, William III, Prince of Orange, and his daughter, Mary, were proclaimed King and Queen, as

WILLIAM III AND MARY II, King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was born post­humously Sovereign Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, at The Hague, 14 November 1650. Crowned with his wife as joint Sovereigns, 11 April, 1689, married at St. James's Palace, 4 November 1677, QUEEN MARY II, eldest daughter of JAMES II (born at St. James's Palace, 30 April, 1662, died at Kensington, 28 December 1694, bur. at West­minster). He died at Kensington, 8 March, 1702 (buried at Westminster Abbey), and was succeeded by

His sister-in-law,

ANNE, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, and from 6 March, 1707, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, (second daughter of JAMES II), born at St. James's, 6 February 1665, succeeded her brother-in-law, William III, 8 March, 1702, crowned 23 April 1702, married at St. James's Palace, 28 July, 1683, GEORGE, Prince of Denmark, Duke of Cumberland, K.G. (died at Kensington, 28 October 1708, buried at Westminster Abbey), son of Frederick III, King of Denmark and Norway, and had issue,

Anne died without issues. at Kensington, 1 August 1714 (buried at Westminster Abbey), and was succeeded by her first cousin once removed,

THE HOUSE OF GUELPH

GEORGE I (the first of the HOUSE OF GUELPH), King of Great Britain, etc., born Georg Ludwig, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Osnaburg, 28 May, 1660, succeeded his father as Duke of Hanover and Elector, 23 Jan.1697-8, Duke of Zell, 1705, Duke of Bremen and Verden, 1719, , naturalized English subject, 1705, succeeded his first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, 1 August, 1714, crowned 20 October 1714, married 21 November 1682, his first cousin Princess Sophia Dorothea (born at Zell, 3 February 1666, div. 28 December 1694, and died at Ahlden, 13 November 1726, uncrowned, buried at Zell), only surviving daughter of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Zell, and had issue,

George I also had several illegitimate children,

George I died at Osnaburg, 11 June, 1727 (buried at Hanover), and was succeeded by his only son,

GEORGE II, King of Great Britain, etc., born George August, Duke of Brunswick Luneburg, at Hanover, 30 October 1683, Kurprinz of Hanover, 23 January 1697-8, naturalized an English subject, 1705), Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, and Baron Tewkesbury, 1706, Duke of Cornwall, 1 August 1714, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, 27 September 1716, succeeded his father as King of Great Britain and Duke of Hanover and Elector, 11 June, 1727, Crowned 11 October 1727, married 22 August 1705 Princess Wilhelmina Charlotte CAROLINE (born at Anspach, 1 March, 1682, died at St. James's, 20 Nov 1737, buried at Westminster Abbey), daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, and had issue,

George II died at Kensington Palace, 25 October 1760 (buried at Westminster Abbey), and was succeeded by his grandson,

GEORGE III, William Frederick, King of Great Britain and Ireland, born at Norfolk House, Westminster, 4 June, 1738, succeeded his father as Duke of Cornwall, second Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, and Kurprinz of Hanover, 20 March, 1751, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, 20 April, 1751, succeeded his grandfather as King of Great Britain and Duke of Hanover and Elector, 25 October 1760, Sovereign Prince of Osnaburg and Munster, 1803, King of Hanover and Sovereign Prince of East Friesland, 1814, crowned 22 September 1761, married 8 September 1761, Princess Sophia Charlotte (born at Mirow, 19 May, 1744, died at Kew Palace, 17 November 1818, buried at Windsor), yst. daughter of Charles I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz , and had issue,

George III died at Windsor, 29 January 1820 (buried there) and was succeeded by his eldest son,

GEORGE IV, Augustus Frederick, King of Great Britain and Ireland, born at St. James's Palace, 12 Aug.1762, Duke of Cornwall etc., and Kurprinz of Hanover at birth, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, 17 Aug.1762, Regent of the Duchy of Brunswick, 1806, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom, 5 February 1811, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1814, succeeded his father as King of Great Britain, etc., and King of Hanover, 29 January 1820, Crowned 10 July, 1821, married at St. James's Palace, 8 April, 1795, his first cousin, Princess Caroline Amelia Elizabeth (born at Brunswick, 1768, died at Hammersmith, 7 August 1821, uncrowned, buried at Brunswick), second daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wölfenbuttel, by his wife Princess Augusta of Wales (see above), and had issue, an only daughter,

George IV also had an illegitimate son,

George IV died at Windsor, 26 June, 1830 (buried there), and was succeeded by his brother,

WILLIAM IV Henry, King of Great Britain and Ireland, born at Buckingham Palace, 21 August 1765, Duke of Clarence and St. Andrews, and Earl of Munster, 20 May, 1789, Admiral of the Fleet, 1811, Lord High Admiral, succeeded his brother as King of Great Britain, etc., and King of Hanover, 26 June, 1830, Crowned 8 September1831, married at Kew Palace, 11 July, 1818, Princess Adelaide Louisa Theresa Caroline Amelia (born at Meiningen, 14 August 1792, died at Sadbury Park, 2 December 1849, buried at Windsor), eldest daughter of George I, Reigning Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and had issue,

William IV also had numerous illegitimate issue,

William IV died at Windsor, 20 June, 1837 (buried there), and was succeeded by his niece,

VICTORIA, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, born at Kensington Palace, 24 May, 1819 succeeded her uncle as Queen of Great Britain, etc., 20 June, 1837, crowned 28 June, 1838, proclaimed Empress of India at Delhi, 1 January 1877, married at St. James's Palace, 10 February 1840, H.R.H. Francis ALBERT Augustus Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, created PRINCE CONSORT by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal, 25 June, 1857, K.G., Field-Marshal (2nd son of Ernest I, Reigning Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha born at Rosenau, nr. Coburg, 26 August 1819, died at Windsor, 14 December 1861 (buried at Frogmore). They had issue,

Victoria died at Osborne, 22 Jan.1901 (buried at Frogmore), and was succeeded by her eldest son,

EDWARD VII, Albert, styled "By The Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India", born at Buckingham Palace, 9 November 1841, Duke of Cornwall, etc., at birth, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin, 17 January 1850, succeeded his mother as King of Great Britain, etc., and Emperor of India, 22 Jan.1901, crowned 9 Aug.1902, married at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 10 March, 1863, Princess ALEXANDRA Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julie, K.G. (born at Copenhagen, 1 December1844, died at Sandringham, 20 November1925, bur. at Windsor), eldest daughter of Christian IX, King of Denmark and had issue,

Edward VII died at Buckingham Palace, 6 May, 1910 (buried at Windsor), and was succeeded by his only surviving son.

THE HOUSE OF WINDSOR

GEORGE V, Frederick Ernest Albert (First of the HOUSE OF WINDSOR), styled "By The Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India", born at Marlborough House, 3 June, 1865, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony (discontinued 17 July, 1917), Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killarney, 24 May 1892, Duke of Cornwall, etc., and heir-apparent, 22 Jan.1901. Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, 9 Nov 1901, succeeded his father as King of Great Britain. etc., Emperor of India, 6 May, 1910, Crowned 22 June, 1911, married at St. James's Palace, 6 July, 1893, H.S.H. Princess Victoria MARY Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes (born at Kensington Palace, 26 May, 1867, died at Marlborough House, 24 March, 1953, buried at Windsor), only daughter of Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander, Duke of Teck, by his wife Princess Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth, younger daughter of Adolphus Frederick, first Duke of Cambridge (see above), and had issue,

George V died at Sandringham, 20 Jan.1936 (buried at Windsor), and was succeeded by his eldest son,

EDWARD VIII, By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India, 20 Jan.1936, succeeded as Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay etc, on his father’s accession 6 May 1910, created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 2 June 1910, succeeded his father as King of Gt. Britain, and Emperor of India etc 20 January 1936. His Majesty renounced the throne for himself and his descendants by instrument dated 10 December1936, which was confirmed by the Declaration of Abdication Act, passed on the following day. He was created by Patent, dated 8 March, 1937, DUKE OF WINDSOR in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He married 3 June 1937 (Bessie) Wallis Warfield (died at Paris 24 April 1986), formerly wife of Ernest Aldrich Simpson, and previously of Capt. Earl Winfield Spencer, Jr., and only child of Teackle Wallis Warfield, of Balitmore, Maryland, USA. He died without issue at Paris 28 May 1972, and was succeeded by his brother,

GEORGE VI Albert Frederick Arthur George, By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, born at York Cottage, Sandringham, 14 December1895, Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney, 3 June, 1920, succeeded upon the abdication of his brother, 10 December1936, as King of Great Britain, etc., and Emperor of India, abandoned the imperial dignity, 22 June, 1948, Crowned 12 May, 1937, married at Westminster Abbey, 26 April, 1923, Lady Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (born at St. Paul's Waldenbury, 4 Aug.1900), daughter of 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, K.T. and had issue,

George VI died at Sandringham, 6 Feb.1952 (buried at Windsor), and was succeeded by his elder daughter,

ELIZABETH II, Alexandra Mary, QUEEN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND AND OF HER OTHER REALMS AND TERRITORIES, HEAD OF THE COMMONWEALTH, born at 17 Bruton St, London W1 21 April 1926, married at Westminster Abbey 20 November 1947 Philip, created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, of Greenwich, co. London 20 November 1947, KG (1947), KT (1952), OM (1968), PC (1951), only son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark succeeded her father 6 February 1952, crowned at Westminster Abbey 2 June 1953, and has issue,

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